Joseph in Egypt: Part I

I am very skeptic about the hypothesis that the first name messes up your life in Germany. Using first names is in Germany, still, reserved for people who know each other well friends, family members. Given names are far too personal. This was a lesson that my German instructor drilled into our heads so that we would not seem impolite should we visit Germany. In south or north of Germany Ossi and Wessi was never a point of discussion. Giwimu A quick note from Germany: I remember that a few years ago I read studies that people with lower income tend to give their children names from moviefigures, pop stars, etc.. Names like Kevin are coming from there.

Archaeology

View an interactive 3D model of Main Concretion Main Concretion The fill of the gullies was largely an un-stratified, one to two metre thick mixture of sand, broken coral, boulder and rock scree lying above a granite bedrock. The excavation of artefacts from within this loose material was fairly straightforward using the methodology described above. Following removal of a mostly mobile layer of sand the upper surface of the concretion was exposed revealing the distinctive shapes of at least five breech chambers and a single firearm barrel.

Investigations of this concretion using handheld metal detectors and a magnetometer indicated it also contained significant quantities of metal throughout its mass.

Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material archaeological record consists of artifacts, architecture, biofacts or ecofacts and cultural ology can be considered both a social science and a branch of the humanities. In North America archaeology is a sub-field of anthropology, while in Europe it is often.

Introduction[ edit ] Excavation initially involves the removal of any topsoil overburden by machine. This material may be examined by metal detector for stray finds but unless the site has remained untouched since its abandonment there is invariably a layer of modern material on the surface of limited archaeological interest. In rural areas, any features are often visible beneath the surface as opposed to urban areas where there may be thick layers of human deposits and only the uppermost contexts will be initially visible and definable through isolation from other contexts.

A strategy for sampling the contexts and features is formulated which may involve total excavation of each feature or only portions. It is preferred goal of excavation to remove all archaeological deposits and features in the reverse order they were created and construct a Harris matrix as a chronological record or “sequence” of the site.

This Harris matrix is used for interpretation and combining contexts into ever larger units of understanding. This stratigraphic removal of the site is crucial for understanding the chronology of events on site. It is perhaps easier to think of this as “archaeological deposits should leave the site in the reverse order they arrived”. A grid is usually set up, dividing the site into 5 m squares to better aid the positioning of the features and contexts on the overall site plan.

This grid is usually tied into a national geomatic database such as the Ordnance Survey in the UK.

Excavation (archaeology)

Paul Berry After building the product for Huffington Post, and owning the product and engineering groups at AOL after we were acquired, it was clear to me there was a huge gap between what the current CMS offering gave the world and what the world needed. Five years later we are at scale, moving the needle and doing to WordPress what Airbnb did to Craigslist.

Social and Centralized WordPress, Drupal, and the custom CMS solutions of the world are all independent, non-connected instances that each need to be updated individually. There are over 87 million instances of WordPress alone in the world, and each security upgrade, feature update, and every other single thing has to be updated for each site individually.

Ostia (Archaeology), 3D Laser Scanning (Archaeology), Roman Mosaics, Structure from Motion (SFM) LASER SCANNING OF A MONOLITHIC COLUMN DURING PROCESSING IN MIDDLE EGYPT From ancient quarries around Akoris in Middle Egypt, which belong to the Ptolemaic and Roman periods, the stone blocks could be carried to the working area located in the.

The method was developed by physicist Willard Libby at the University of Chicago who received the Nobel Prize for the discovery in The radioactive isotope 14C is created in the atmosphere by cosmic radiation and is taken up by plants and animals as long as they live. The C method cannot be used on material more than about 50, years old because of this short half-life. Other isotopes are used by geologists to date older material. This number is called a standard deviation and is a measure of the spread of measurements around the mean average.

Radiocarbon dating has had an enormous impact on archaeology around the world since it made it possible to date carbon and wood could be directly without dependence on characteristic artifacts or written historical records. But as more dates became available, Egyptologists, who had hieroglyphic records back thousands of years, began to recognize that C dates were generally too young. They proved this by showing that C dates of wooden artifacts with cartouches dated royal names did not agree.

The explanation was that the physicists had assumed that the amount of C in the atmosphere had been constant, when in fact it had varied over time. The solution came using dendrochronology tree ring dating. Since tree rings provide an annual calendar, and some trees live for thousands of years, by C dating the rings themselves one could correct the radiocarbon dates and calibrate the differences. The Bristlecone pine trees in the Sierra Nevada mountains made this possible and today there are international tree ring databases and agreed-upon calibration curves.

Joseph in Egypt: Part I

The aim of the course is to introduce participants to the theories and techniques of archaeological illustration through lectures and practical sessions. Participants will learn how to set up an artefact for an archaeological drawing and then how to draw it. This course is for anyone interested in this traditional method of recording artefacts that is still relevant today. Divers and non-divers will find this course interesting as it will teach them that through the detailed observations required for an archaeological illustration, more information can be gleaned from an artefact that might not be observed during rapid photographic recording techniques.

People wishing to include the still essential line illustrations of artefacts in publications will find this course useful as they will learn how to create these figures themselves.

Archaeology might evoke thoughts of intrepid explorers and painstaking digging, but in fact researchers say it is a high-tech laser mapping technique that is rewriting the textbooks at an.

Dating refers to the archaeological tool to date artefacts and sites, and to properly construct history. All methods can be classified into two basic categories: Based on a discipline of geology called stratigraphy, rock layers are used to decipher the sequence of historical geological events. Relative techniques can determine the sequence of events but not the precise date of an event, making these methods unreliable. These methods are based on calculating the date of artefacts in a more precise way using different attributes of materials.

This method includes carbon dating and thermoluminescence. The first method was based on radioactive elements whose property of decay occurs at a constant rate, known as the half-life of the isotope. Today, many different radioactive elements have been used, but the most famous absolute dating method is radiocarbon dating, which uses the isotope 14C.

This isotope, which can be found in organic materials and can be used only to date organic materials, has been incorrectly used by many to make dating assumptions for non-organic material such as stone buildings. The half-life of 14C is approximately years, which is too short for this method to be used to date material millions of years old.

Erich von Däniken’s Spaceman-Gods

If you would like to share the results of your research with the wider archaeological community, please contact us! Work will be taking place on site until the 29th of June. Find out more here. The talk will start at 6:

Dating is one of the most important aspects of the archaeological world. In the first article of a new series called Biblical Archaeology , discover the difference between relative and absolute dating, and learn about the many techniques archaeologists use to date sites, people, objects, and historical events.

Most extensive archaeological lidar acquisition ever completed worldwide. Abstract Early Khmer societies developed extensive settlement complexes that were largely made of non-durable materials. These fragile urban areas perished many centuries ago, and thus a century and a half of scholarly research has focussed on the more durable components of Khmer culture, in particular the famous temples and the texts and works of art that are normally found within them. In recent years however there has been a considerable effort to broaden the perspective beyond conventional approaches to Khmer history and archaeology.

Remarkable advances have been made in the domain of remote sensing and archaeological mapping, including the application of advanced geospatial techniques such as airborne laser scanning within studies of heritage landscapes at Angkor and beyond. This article describes the most recent applications of the technology in Cambodia, including the results of a newly-completed campaign of airborne laser scanning in —the most extensive acquisition ever undertaken by an archaeological project—and underscores the importance of using these methods as part of a problem-oriented research program that speaks to broader issues within history and archaeology.

Previous article in issue.

Environment

Sunday 14 August The find is of international significance. Work on the circle was stopped abruptly by around BC — despite the fact that it was nearing completion. The giant metre long, centimetre diameter timber posts were lifted vertically out of their 1. The recent huge storms and gale force winds that have battered the coast of West Wales have stripped away much of the sand from stretches of the beach between Borth and Ynyslas.

The disappearing sands have revealed ancients forests, with the remains of oak trees dating back to the Bronze Age, 6, years ago.

Archaeologists familiar with lidar surveys say that laser scanning will change their field as profoundly as the advent of radiocarbon dating in the late s. How lidar works in archaeology.

Pubblicato aprile 9, Da Antrocom Rare religious artifact found at ancient temple site in Italy is from lost culture fundamental to western traditions The Etruscan stele was embedded in the foundations of a monumental temple where it had been for more than 2, years. Mugello Valley Project Archaeologists in Italy have discovered what may be a rare sacred text in the Etruscan language that is likely to yield rich details about Etruscan worship of a god or goddess.

The lengthy text is inscribed on a large 6th century BCE sandstone slab that was uncovered from an Etruscan temple. A new religious artifact is rare. Most Etruscan discoveries typically have been grave and funeral objects. The slab, weighing about pounds and nearly four feet tall by more than two feet wide, has at least 70 legible letters and punctuation marks, said Warden, professor emeritus at Southern Methodist University, Dallas, main sponsor of the project.

Scholars in the field predict the stele STEE-lee , as such slabs are called, will yield a wealth of new knowledge about the lost culture of the Etruscans. The stele has at least 70 legible letters and punctuation marks, likely with new words never seen before.

Excavation (archaeology)

Slide 4 of 21 Catacomb Christ An ancient painting of Jesus was uncovered in the Roman Catacombs , and scientists found the dramatic picture — depicting Jesus welcoming the dead — is at least 1, years old. The painting was found among other elaborate frescoes uncovered in the catacombs of St. Domitila, a set of labyrinthine tunnels that wend their way under modern-day Rome.

The frescoes were found after a laser cleaning, in a burial chamber of a wealthy grain merchant. The chamber itself was known for years, but the paintings were hidden beneath years of dirt and grime.

Radiocarbon dating has had an enormous impact on archaeology around the world since it made it possible to date carbon and wood could be directly without dependence on characteristic artifacts or.

It reveals many more axe carvings and much new information on how the stones were shaped. The analysis found 71 new axehead carvings, increasing the number known at Stonehenge to This is around a years after the big sarsen stone circle was erected. Contrary to press reports, Stonehenge was not a huge art gallery – these carvings are found only on four stones.

The scanning has also revealed incredible detail on how the stones were shaped. Some were “pecked” with stone mauls in horizontal lines, others with vertical lines. The study, just published online by English Heritage and free to download, also provides information on how much damage has been caused by souvenir hunters chipping off bits of stone, or by visitors carving graffiti – including Sir Christopher Wren, the architect of 17th century London!

Download the full report here: Using the latest geophysical imaging techniques, which “see” below the ground without excavation, it is possible to make out a dark circle of interrupted ditch.

STONEHENGE LATEST NEWS

LOBELL Monday, August 15, For a variety of field projects over the last decade, archaeologist Phil Sapirstein has lugged more than 20 pounds of high-tech laser imaging equipment around the Mediterranean gathering data to create 3-D models of ancient monuments. Old Temple at Corinth, dedicated to the god Apollo, burned down and was replaced, obliterating most evidence of the original building.

Other structures from the period were flawed due to the lack of experience with engineering and construction techniques needed for monumental stone architecture. Further complicating the effort to identify these early buildings, the stone was often reused, obscuring its original context. Sapirstein realized that these tiles, which are relatively abundant, were an underutilized source of information, especially when examined using 3-D imagery.

The temple of Hera at Olympia, or the Heraion, dates to around B.

Another absolute dating method is thermoluminescence, which dates the last time an item was heated. It is the only method that can be used to date rocks, pottery and minerals for dates that are approximately between to 10, years old.

Introduction[ edit ] Excavation initially involves the removal of any topsoil overburden by machine. This material may be examined by metal detector for stray finds but unless the site has remained untouched since its abandonment there is invariably a layer of modern material on the surface of limited archaeological interest. In rural areas, any features are often visible beneath the surface as opposed to urban areas where there may be thick layers of human deposits and only the uppermost contexts will be initially visible and definable through isolation from other contexts.

A strategy for sampling the contexts and features is formulated which may involve total excavation of each feature or only portions. It is preferred goal of excavation to remove all archaeological deposits and features in the reverse order they were created and construct a Harris matrix as a chronological record or “sequence” of the site. This Harris matrix is used for interpretation and combining contexts into ever larger units of understanding.

This stratigraphic removal of the site is crucial for understanding the chronology of events on site. It is perhaps easier to think of this as “archaeological deposits should leave the site in the reverse order they arrived”. A grid is usually set up, dividing the site into 5 m squares to better aid the positioning of the features and contexts on the overall site plan.

This grid is usually tied into a national geomatic database such as the Ordnance Survey in the UK. In urban archaeology this grid becomes invaluable for implementing single context recording. Single context recording system[ edit ] Single context recording was developed in the s by the museum of London as well as earlier in Winchester and York and has become the de facto recording system in many parts of the world and is especially suited to the complexities of deep urban archaeology and the process of Stratification.

Depending on time constraints and importance contexts may also be photographed, but in this case a grouping of contexts and their associations are the purpose of the photography. Finds from each context are bagged and labeled with their context number and site code for later cross reference work carried out post-excavation.

The Tomb of Jesus Christ is Proven Older than Experts Thought

Antiquarians studied history with particular attention to ancient artifacts and manuscripts, as well as historical sites. Antiquarianism focused on the empirical evidence that existed for the understanding of the past, encapsulated in the motto of the 18th-century antiquary, Sir Richard Colt Hoare , “We speak from facts not theory”.

Tentative steps towards the systematization of archaeology as a science took place during the Enlightenment era in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries. Flavio Biondo , an Italian Renaissance humanist historian, created a systematic guide to the ruins and topography of ancient Rome in the early 15th century, for which he has been called an early founder of archaeology.

Archaeology, which is situated between the hard natural sciences and social sciences, has adapted the techniques developed in these fields to answer both archaeological and anthropological.

How did Libby test his method and find out if it worked correctly? Libby tested the new radiocarbon method on carbon samples from prehistoric Egypt whose age was known. A sample of acacia wood from the tomb of the pharoah Zoser was dated for example. Zoser lived during the 3rd Dynasty in Egypt BC. The results they obtained indicated this was the case. Many other radiocarbon dates were conducted on samples of wood of known age.

Again, the results were good. In , Libby and his team published their results. By the early s there were 8 new radiocarbon laboratories, and by the end of the decade more than How much sample material do you need to date using radiocarbon? A new way of radiocarbon dating was developed in the late s called “AMS Radiocarbon dating“. AMS dating is important because using it you can date very small sizes carbon samples.

Imagine a grain of rice, this can be dated now with radiocarbon. We can date pollen grains, seeds, tiny pieces of charcoal.